Leo von Klenze proposed placing sculpture of the modern era in this hall. That is why its decor includes medallions bearing the profiles of outstanding sculptors, including Michelangelo, Canova and Martos.
The hall acquired its present name from a huge statue of Jupiter (late 1st century) that comes from the suburban villa of Emperor Domitian. Particularly noteworthy among the display of Ancient Roman art of the 1st to 4th century are the sculptural portraits and marble sarcophagi. Masterpieces of the collection are the Portrait of a Roman Woman (known as A Syrian Woman) and the portraits of Emperors Lucius Verus, Balbinus and Philip the Arabian.